Glossary/Definitions

AASHTO (American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) - AASHTO develops guidelines and standards for roadway design, including bicycle and pedestrian facilities (http://www.aashto.org).

ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) - Federal law requiring construction that is publicly funded or open to the public to be accessible.

ADT (Average Daily Traffic) - Averaged count of traffic volume on a particular road or section of road.

CBDG (Community Development Block Grant) - Funding awarded to a municipality for improvements in low-income neighborhoods – can go for a range of facilities, including bicycle and pedestrian.

CIP (Capital Improvement Program) - A government’s 5-year budget plan for expenditures for capital projects (i.e., major projects other than recurring operations costs).

CMAQ (Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality) - A section of ISTEA and TEA-21 which funds projects to improve air quality in non-attainment areas (Charlotte is one) – bike and ped projects eligible.

COG (Council of Governments) - Regional councils (16 in NC) that promote largerscale planning – local governments are members and pay dues – Cabarrus and Rowan are in the Centralina COG made up of 8 surrounding counties.

DBPT (Division of Bicycle and Pedestrian Transportation, NCDOT) - The DBPT manages bicycle and pedestrian projects for the state, advises municipalities, creates state bicycle and pedestrian guidelines, and offers education and mapping materials.

EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) - Analysis prior to development of potential impact of a project – required of major projects such as roads.

FHWA (Federal Highway Administration) - An agency of the USDOT – actively involved in promoting safe facilities and education programs, including bike and ped.

FTA (Federal Transit Administration) - Federal agency which provides funding for planning, development, and improvement of public mass transportation systems.

GIS (Geographic Information System) - Database and mapping software such as ArcInfo, ArcView, or TRANSCAD.

ISTEA (Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act) - Groundbreaking federal legislation that authorized a percentage of transportation money to go to alternative transportation – since reauthorized as TEA-21 – now being considered for reauthorization as TEA-3.

LAB (League of American Bicyclists) - National advocacy group located in Washington, DC.

LOS (Level of Service) - A measure of the facility of traffic flow – LOS standards are just being developed for bicycle and pedestrian traffic.

MPO (Metropolitan Planning Organization) - The Cabarrus-Rowan MPO (CR MPO) is one of 17 MPO’s in NC – an MPO makes recommendations to NCDOT for transportation improvements in its region (Charlotte is in MUMPO, Mecklenburg-Union Urban Area MPO).

MUTCD (Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices) - The holy writ for traffic signals, signs, and pavement markings – used by all transportation departments.

NCDOT (North Carolina Department of Transportation) - The central office for NCDOT is in Raleigh – there are also 14 divisions in the state, each with its own office and local engineer. Cabarrus is in Division 10 and Rowan is in Division 9.

NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) - 1969 federal law requiring any project with federal funding or approval must examine impacts on environment, and consider alternatives, before a decision is made.

NHTSA (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) - Agency responsible for safety awareness and education programs – publishes materials for use with all ages and groups.

SOV (Single Occupancy Vehicle) - One car, one person (as opposed to HOV, High Occupancy Vehicle).

STP-DA (Surface Transportation Program – Direct Attributable) - An MPO’s funding from ISTEA and TEA-21 for small local enhancement projects or planning assistance.

STPP (Surface Transportation Policy Project) - Research and Advocacy resource on transportation issues (http://www.transact.org)

TAC (Transportation Advisory Committee) - The TAC is the governing board of the MPO – it consists of elected officials from the local governments in the MPO area plus the area’s member of the BOT (Board of Transportation).

TCC (Transportation Coordinating Committee) - The TCC is the technical advisory committee to the TAC – it consists of staff from transportation, planning, and local transit agencies.

TDM (Traffic Demand Management) - A toolbox of techniques for reducing traffic congestion, from carpooling to HOV lanes to telecommuting.

TEA-21 (Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century) - Federal act providing states with funding and guidelines for “enhancements” to transportation, including bicycle and pedestrian facilities (http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tea21/sumcov.htm).

TIP (Transportation Improvement Program) - The TIP is a statewide list of new roads and road improvement needs which is updated bi-annually by the NCDOT, based on recommendations from the MPO’s – the TIP is revised every two years, but contains items budgeted for seven years out – bicycle and pedestrian facilities may be “incidental” or “independent” projects within the TIP – you may also see references to the STIP (State TIP) as opposed to the MTIP (MPO TIP).

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